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Narrow-leaf Puccoon versus Jack Frost
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By Garden of Cross Timbers
Hello, I am Becky Carlberg, gardening enthusiast from Southeast Oklahoma. I have degrees in Biology from Eastern Oklahoma State College and Oklahoma State University. Teaching, research work, and competing in art shows then followed. I earned my ...
Gardens of Cross Timbers

Hello, I am Becky Carlberg, gardening enthusiast from Southeast Oklahoma. I have degrees in Biology from Eastern Oklahoma State College and Oklahoma State University. Teaching, research work, and competing in art shows then followed. I earned my Master’s Degree in Plant Pathology from OSU and continued graduate work on a Doctorate of Botany at the University of Oklahoma.

With my family, we twice had an opportunity to live in Europe. We were in England for five years and then later in Germany for seven years. It was an excellent education for our sons. I returned to gardening, writing and art, became a Master Gardener, as well as an Oklahoma certified Master Naturalist. I am the gardener in charge of the Shawnee Japanese Peace Garden, a member of the Deep Fork Audubon Society, and now call my five acre Backyard Wildlife Habitat and Oklahoma Wildscape outside Shawnee home.

My name is Linda Workman Smith. The first step of my gardening journey began in the hills northwest of Van Buren, Arkansas, where my parents—both from farming families—raised seven children.

This is not to say that I’ve always had a love for gardening although over the years I’ve managed to keep my hands in the dirt. In 2000, my husband’s employment brought us to Shawnee where we settled on two acres west of town. Being unemployed for the first time in many years—and planning to stay that way—I started gardening on a small scale.

I have been a member of the Multi-County Master Gardener Association for several years and thoroughly enjoy being in the organization. I now have many flower beds and I’ve expanded my gardens to include lots of vegetable varieties, several fruit trees, strawberries, blackberries, raspberries and grapes. Every year I try to plant something different. I don’t grow a lot of any one thing, but a little bit of lots of things!

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Narrow-leaf Puccoon
Narrow-leaf Puccoon
By Garden of Cross Timbers
April 11, 2013 6:37 p.m.

11 April 2013 Blog
Becky Emerson Carlberg
Below freezing again last night, long enough for ice to form over the puddles and thick frost to cover the windscreens and roofs. The last freeze usually happens by the 15th of April in this area, but this year who knows?
I am happy to report the Narrow-leaf Puccoons are now in bloom. The freeze did not affect these guys, but they are closer to the ground…..no more than 6 inches high in my area. I have read in other places the Puccoon can reach nearly 16 inches. The ground temperatures are about 42 degrees right now, and that may have been a factor in protecting the low-growing Puccoons. Even though they are found throughout the central USA into the southern Canadian Provinces (but not the Eastern Seaboard or Washington, Oregon and Idaho), the Puccoon is endangered in Indiana (can’t compete with the megafarms and corn production) and probably extinct in Michigan.
The Narrow-leaf Puccoon is in the borage family (the group with Forget-me-nots and flowers usually blue!). The flowers grow in clusters and each flower consists of a narrow yellow tube ending in 5 joined frilly edged petals. The bright yellow flowers appear at the ends of stems 6 inches or longer, and the plant may fan out from its base into a small herb bush. The leaves, arranged in alternate fashion, are very narrow at the ends, but become slightly broader at the base of the plant. The leaf blades and stems are “hairy” and can be irritating due to their calcium carbonate and silicon dioxide content.
The Puccoon is a perennial that prefers dry prairies, disturbed soils and open areas or woods. Dry soils, lots of sun and sandy, clay or loamy soils. Perfect for central Oklahoma.
Puccoon comes from the word poughkone in the Powhatan language. Spoken by the Powhatan Algonquian tribe that lived in eastern Virginia and southern Maryland region, the language became extinct in the 18th century. Oddly enough, English borrowed many Powhatan words we are very familiar with in this part of Oklahoma: hickory, hominy, opossum, pokeweed, persimmon, raccoon, terrapin and chinquapin as in chinquapin oak.
Puccoon was a common name for many plants with roots that produced red and yellow dyes. This is why I will narrow the field to Lithospermum incisum, the , the official name for our Narrow-leaf Puccoon. Lithospermum means “stone seed” as each flower produces 4 hard little nutlets. And just to confuse the issue a little more, the showy early spring flowers tend not to set many seeds. A few weeks later, a series of hidden unopened flowers in leaf axils will become fertilized and these flowers produce most the seeds that are responsible for new offspring. The plant is announcing “here I am, do not forget I am here!” (remember, they are in the forget- me-not family) as spring arrives, but the pollinators may not be out in great numbers. As the season warms up, the odds increase for fertilization with more pollinating insects flying about. Sly Narrow-leaf Puccoons.
Go look but do not disturb. Forget not where they are and as good gardeners wait for the seeds later. The plants will thank you.

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